I attended this year’s PETS conference a couple weeks ago, and for the next several weeks I’m going to be focusing on highlights from there. For variety’s sake, there will be one unrelated thing each week.
I’m starting with a paper which is heavier mathematical going than I usually pick. The author claims to have developed an optimal (meta-)strategy for obfuscating a person’s location before revealing it to some sort of service. The person wants to reveal enough information to get whatever utility the service provides, while not telling it exactly where they are, because they don’t entirely trust the service. The service, meanwhile, wants to learn as much as possible about the person’s location—it doesn’t matter why.
There are two standard mathematical techniques for obfuscating a location: differential privacy and distortion privacy. They both work by adding noise to a location value, but they use different metrics for how much the adversary can learn given the noisy value. The paper asserts:
differential privacy is sensitive to the likelihood of observation given data, distortion privacy is sensitive to the joint probability of observation given data. Thus, by guaranteeing both, we encompass all the defense that is theoretically possible. (This is a bold claim and I don’t know enough about this subfield to verify it.) The paper proceeds to demonstrate, first, that you can construct a linear-programming problem whose solution gives an appropriate amount of noise to add to a location value, and second, that this solution is game-theoretically optimal, even against an adversary who knows your strategy and can adapt to it. Then they analyze the degree to which the data has to be obfuscated, comparing this with more limited algorithms from previous literature.
I unfortunately couldn’t make any sense of the comparisons, because the figures are poorly labeled and explained. And the bulk of the paper is just mathematical derivations, to which I have nothing to add. But there is an important point I want to highlight. The game-theoretic analysis only works if everything the adversary already knows (before they learn the obfuscated location) is captured by a distance metric which defines
how far the obfuscated location has been displaced. Mathematically, this is fine; any given fact that the adversary might know about the person revealing their location can be modeled by adjusting the metric. (Person is in a city, so their path is constrained to the street grid. Person just left a large park, there is only one coffee shop within radius X of that park. Person never goes to that restaurant.) However, the system doing the obfuscation might not be able to predict all of those factors, and if it distorts the metric too much it might contradict itself (person cannot possibly have walked from A to B in the time available). In the future I’d like to see some analysis of this. What is it plausible for the adversary to know? At what point does the obfuscation break down because it can’t cover all the known facts without contradicting itself?