Today’s paper takes another shot at modeling how the physical topology of the Internet affects the security of Tor against passive adversaries with the ability to snoop on a lot of traffic. It’s by some of the same people who wrote
Defending Tor from Network Adversaries and is quite closely related.
Most of the work of this paper goes into building a flexible, formal threat model, which Tor client software could (in principle) use to inform its routing decisions. Acknowledging that there’s always going to be a good deal of uncertainty about what adversaries are out there and what they are capable of, they make two key design decisions. The model is probabilistic (based on a Bayesian belief network), and it takes user input. For instance, if you have reason to think the government of Transbelvia has it in for you, you can instruct Tor to avoid paths that Transbelvia might be able to snoop on, and the model will expand that out to all the ways they might do that. Conversely, if you trust a particular organization you might like to preferentially use its guards or exit nodes, and it can do that too.
The model is very thorough about different ways a government might be able to snoop on network traffic—not just relays physically hosted in the country, but ASes and IXPs (Transbelvia hosts a major IXP for Eastern Europe), submarine cable landing sites (not relevant for a landlocked country),
mutual legal assistance treaties (MLATs) which might be used to have another country do some snooping on Transbelvia’s behalf, and even hacking into and subverting routers at interesting points in the connectivity graph. (The pun in the title refers to their analysis of how MLATs could allow several of the usual suspects to snoop on 90+% of all submarine cable traffic, even though they host hardly any cable landings themselves.) Equally important, it can be expanded at need when new techniques for spying are revealed.
I think something like this is going to be an essential building block if we want to add any spy-aware routing algorithm to Tor, but I have two serious reservations. First, simplest, but less important, right now all Tor clients make routing decisions more-or-less the same way (there have been small changes to the algorithm over time, but everyone is strongly encouraged to stay close to the latest client release anyway, just because of bugs). If clients don’t all make routing decisions the same way, then that by itself might be usable to fingerprint them, and thus cut down the number of people who might’ve taken some action, from
all Tor users to
all Tor users who make routing decisions like THIS. If highly personalized threat models are allowed, the latter group might be just one person.
Second, and rather more serious, the user-input aspect of this system is going to require major user experience research and design to have any hope of not being worse than the problem it’s trying to solve. It’s not just a matter of putting a friendly face on the
belief language (although that does need to happen)—the system will need to educate its users in the meaning of what it is telling them, and it will need to walk them through the consequences of their choices. And it might need to provide nudges if there’s a good reason to think the user’s assessment of their threat model is flat-out wrong (even just making that judgement automatically is fraught with peril—but so is not making that judgement).